Tips for squirrel-proofing your bird feeder

Squirrels and bird feeders go hand-in-hand. While the occasional visit from a furry friend is delightful for most people, the frequent presence of squirrels around your feeders can quickly become a nuisance. Not only can these critters eat you out of house and home, their rodent acrobatics can damage feeders. These factors can end up costing you time and money.

Here are some tips for squirrel-proofing your bird feeders and keeping the peace in your yard.

Invest in a squirrel-proof feeder

Certain types of bird feeders are designed with squirrels in mind. Some have cages designed to keep anything other than birds from accessing feed. Others have small motors that are activated by weight sensors that gently nudge squirrels in the right direction.

Avoiding platform feeders and other easy-access food stuffs will also help ensure that birds have feeding areas to themselves.

If you don’t want to invest in a new feeder, there are still plenty of things you can do.

Keep the ground clean

Frequently raking the ground near and around your feeders can help keep squirrels at bay. In many instances, discarded seeds and shells laying about are a squirrels first hint that there is a food source present.

By not providing a low-effort feeding opportunity, you are less likely to encourage the presence of squirrels to begin with.

Pick the right pole

It’s no secret that squirrels are excellent at climbing. Most wood and metal poles that hang bird feeders are no match for the prowess of these four-legged critters. However, PVC pipe can prove to be more of a challenge.

If you don’t want to go that route, you can do what my grandpa did and apply a thin layer of Crisco to the bottom couple of feet of the pole. For a little less maintenance , consider adding a slinky to the base of the pole.

Tweak your feed

Squirrels aren’t too picky about bird feed varieties, but they are a little more selective than many bird species. Tinkering with your offerings can lead to different results. For instance, switching to a mix that features safflower has been known to deter squirrels.

Another option is adding a bit of spice to your feed. Adding chili peppers or chili flakes to your mix will nip your squirrel troubles in the bud since these animals are sensitive to the taste and sensation of heat. Birds, on the other hand, are not.

Give the squirrels their own feeder

If you want the best of both worlds, you can simply feed the squirrels in your yard as well.

Providing peanuts or dried corn in a squirrel-friendly feeder can take away the need for squirrels to ransack your bird feeders. Accessibility is key because, like most living creatures, squirrels are much more apt to take the easy meal over one that requires exerting significant effort.

You can keep everyone happy by offering appropriate, approachable feeding opportunities for a variety of animals that inhabit your yard.

An old friend, big fish, and new adventures

It took me a while to realize it, but I am a bit of a homebody.

Not to say that I don’t like adventures and new experiences. I just enjoy a certain level of familiarity and the comfort that comes with it. I’m not averse to trying new things per se, I simply pick and choose my opportunities in a calculated way.

This certainly leads to missing out on some chances and, if I’m honest, I sometimes kick myself for that. But being selective about when and how I step out of my usual surroundings help me try to keep the stress and anxiety in my life at a minimum.

Recently, I had a chance to venture away from home and it was an opportunity I simply couldn’t turn down.

During the last several years, I have regularly received pictures from my friend JT, an old college buddy who is a Minnesota native. These photos generally include a vast array of large fish he catches in Potato Lake just outside of Park Rapids. His family has a cabin there and that lake provides most of JT’s fishing opportunities throughout the year.

Fishing is one of the many things that has forged the bond between JT throughout the years. But, for whatever reason, we haven’t done much fishing together. Earlier this year, we decided to change that.

Earlier this year, we began making arrangements to meet up at his family’s cabin. To up the ante, we selected a weekend when we could participate in an online bass fishing tournament. We spent the following months exchanging ideas on tactics, gear, and (of course) fish pictures.

As the week of the trip arrived, I spent most of my free time organizing my gear and travel necessities. While I wasn’t exactly thrilled about the nearly eight-and-a-half-hour drive, nothing was going to deter me from enjoying the weekend ahead. I wasn’t going to miss a chance to fish with a friend I hadn’t seen in over a year, nor was I going to deny myself the chance to catch a few fish of the quality he regularly encounters.

The truck ride up was smooth and uneventful. I was surprised at how quickly the time seemed to pass. It’s amazing what determination and focus can do.

As soon as I got out of the car, we got straight to business. I unloaded my tackle and JT and I immediately began assessing our options.

About five minutes in to the conversation, JT looked at me and asked, “Did you even bring clothes?” At that point, I decided it was time to quickly unpack my non-fishing-related cargo. With that taken care of, we hopped in the boat.

Our rig for the bulk of the weekend was a 12-foot aluminum boat with an equally old 10-horse outboard that JT had acquired for the low, low price of “free.” I was asked to bring boots along because the boat “leaks a little.” The ice cream pail sitting behind the rear bench quickly made me realize that this beauty came as advertised.

The tournament format was pretty simple. Each competing angler gets an identification code. That code must be included in every fish picture. Fish are placed on a trough-style measuring board and photographed. Those photos get uploaded to an app. The five longest fish count toward your score. The angler in your region of the country with the highest score wins. Largemouth, smallmouth, and spotted Bass are all fair game.

As we set out to our first spot, images of all the big smallmouth JT had sent me in recent months began rushing through my head. I stared at the faded Bass Pro Shops measuring tape in the front right of the craft contemplating how our fish would measure up. We had a real opportunity to be competitive this weekend and that added a level of excitement.

JT warned me that fishing was slow in the morning. But that didn’t do much to temper my expectations. I was confident we were going to get on a few fish and they were going to be big.

We spent most of our time on shallow water spots: humps, points, sandbars, and the like. We were, as JT called it, taking a “run and gun” approach, frequently switching rods to offer up different presentations and never spending more than 15 minutes in a given spot. However, action was hard to come by. JT had scored a small northern pike but that was all we had to show for our first couple of hours.

As sunset approached, our luck began to change our while drifting a large hump. JT boated a solid 17-inch smallmouth on a top-water bait, adding to his relatively meager total from earlier in the day. He now had three fish on the board.

Since imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, I decided to switch over to a top-water bait as well. I’ve never had much luck with this approach at my local spots, but I had a feeling Potato Lake would offer up a different experience. As it turned out, that’s exactly what happened.

On several occasions, the calm water erupted as a bass launched itself at my bait. That experience alone provides a unique brand of excitement. One minute you’re enjoying the serenity of a peaceful lake, watching loons hunt, and bald eagles soar. Then, without warning, you’re treated to a shot of a adrenaline straight to the veins.

The trick is managing that drastic shift in emotions. Setting the hook too soon can pull the bait right out of the fish’s mouth. In other cases, the fish misses the bait entirely despite the impressive display of aerial acrobatics.

After coming up empty on a handful of strikes and daylight running low, I switched to one of my old standby lures: the Rapala F7. I managed to land a few small bass. At least I was on the board.

We headed back to the cabin and enjoyed some pizza and cold beer while I caught up with JT’s parents and we mulled over plans for the morning.

The next day, we were up and at ’em bright and early, probably an our before sunrise. We each snacked on a delicious oatmeal muffin, straight from the oven (courtesy of Mrs. Tix) before heading down to the dock.

A modest north wind was blowing, a factor we would need to take into account as we implemented the strategies we discussed the night prior.

We want back to top-water tactics since that yielded the most success during our last trip. We worked reeds and points in areas that were protected from the wind. Early on, a solid pike came completely out of the water as soon as my bait hit the surface. I fought the fish to within yards of the boat when the 30-plus-inch specimen seemingly decided it had enough, opened its mouth, and simply let the bait go.

After coming up empty at the hump that produced fish the day before, we moved to a sandbar that immediately showed signs of life. On my first cast, a large walleye followed my spinner bait all the way to the boat before thinking better of striking. JT had a bass follow on his first cast.

Before long, JT had scooped up a couple of smallmouth in the 16-inch range. He now had five scoring fish and was sitting comfortably in second place in the standings.

We tried a new post near a weed patch before heading in for lunch and I was able to land a 10-inch largemouth. It wasn’t much, but I now had three fish on the board.

After quickly scarfing down some re-heated pizza, we shifted our attention to Plan B: a pond just down the road from the cabin that was a largemouth bass haven. We loaded up a pair of kayaks, made sure our tackle was in order, and hit the road.

JT had this spot in his back pocket, just in case we ran into the type of slow fishing we encountered on the lake. He was very confident as we discussed our plan on the truck ride over. As it turned out, he had every right to be.

With the gear unloaded, I sat in my kayak, a royal blue job with a shark face on the front. JT pushed me off as he tidied up on shore. I lofted a few casts with no luck. I have spent very little time in kayaks in my life and even less time attempting to fish out of one. I was a bit nervous about the whole thing.

When paddled out to me, JT asked how many casts I got in. He seemed surprised to find I hadn’t had a bite despite only three attempts.

We made our way to the far side of the pond and began fishing in earnest. It was about noon and the sun was directly overhead as the wind continued to persist. The bay we were floating in was relatively shallow and surrounded by weeds and lily pads.

“Got one,” JT yelled out shortly after he put a line in the water. I looked over to see my friend pulling on a doubled-over rod while the fish thrashed in front of him.

A short while later, I was hooked up with my first fish. It measured out at just over 14 inches, my largest of the weekend so far.

This is when I began to understand the level of thought that goes with fishing from a kayak during a tournament. Landing a fish, unhooking it, finding the measuring board, getting a good picture, and safely releasing the fish, all while floating in windy conditions requires a level of organization that I don’t always possess.

To be honest, the first couple fish were frustrating, even though all of them helped my score. Keeping lines from tangling, making sure my gear doesn’t shift around too much, trying not to get hooked or finned when a fish is in the boat, it’s a lot for someone with almost no kayaking experience. It felt like chaos.

But the fish just kept coming with bites on seemingly every cast. Eventually, I got into a groove and I began to embrace the chaos as an added element of fun rather than a detriment.

We found fish in the shallows and began pulling out largemouth after largemouth on frogs, Whopper Ploppers, Rapalas, and chatterbaits. Once the top-water bite slowed, we moved to deeper pockets where we found even more fish.

As the day went on, we systematically covered water and made sure we didn’t leave any spots unexplored.

At one point, I got a hook buried in the knuckle of my left index finger. JT paddled over and kindly performed a small, on-the-water medical procedure to dislodge the hook because I didn’t have the stomach for it. After that hiccup it was back to fishing and back to padding our scores.

All told, I ended up with 32 smallmouth. JT had at least that many of his own to his credit. He left the pond still in second place in the standings with over 84 inches of fish. I was now in third with just under 79.

In the six-plus hours we spent on the pond, we estimated we had over 150 bites. Though many of the fish were cookie-cutter specimens in the 15-16-inch range, catching them was an absolute blast. Largemouth are hard to come by where I’m from. Consistently finding some of this size, in these numbers, is nearly impossible.

That night, we feasted on some cheesy chicken hot dish for dinner as we went over our photos and scores. We agreed to give the lake one more shot in the morning before I had to make the trek home.

The next morning, we pushed off the dock just before sunrise with the plan to run-and-gun to our most successful spots. We were swinging for the fences now, hoping to find a fish or two to put us over the top. It didn’t take long.

On my very first cast, I scored a 17.5-inch largemouth on a spinner. This ended up being my largest fish of the tournament and put my top-five total at over 80 inches.

We found a couple more bass that didn’t help our scores along with a handful of pike.

Before we knew it, it was time to head back to the cabin and say our goodbyes. I am incredibly grateful for the hospitality JT and his family showed me. Before I hopped in the truck, we already started making plans for next year.

I ended the weekend with 41 fish, 38 of them bass.

When the dust settled on the tournament, JT finished third with 84.75 inches of fish in his top-five. I took fifth with 80.50 inches, by far the highest total I have ever recorded in one of these events.

On the ride home, I reflected on a great weekend filled with friendship, beautiful scenery, and plenty of fish.

Once in a while, there are certainly benefits to not being a homebody.

Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast – Episode 14: Birding and the importance of citizen science

It’s Episode 14 of the Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast!

Nick Anich, Breeding Bird Atlas Coordinator – Bureau of Natural Heritage for the Wisconsin DNR, joins the show to discuss birding and highlight the benefits of utilizing the eBird app.

Nathan and Nick discuss bird feeders, how to get into birding, and the impact of citizen science.

You can listen to the episode in the player below or wherever you get your podcasts. Like what you hear? Be sure to subscribe on your podcast platform of choice.

For more information on eBird, click here.

If you enjoyed this episode, you may also be interested in these articles:

How birding has made me a better outdoorsman

6 tips for maintaining your bird feeder

Jump Day

Caring for the birds in your yard

The magic of Opening Day

If I had to choose, fall is my favorite season. I suspect that many of us who enjoy the outdoors share this opinion.

That’s because this season, arguably, provides more opportunities to connect with nature than any other. The final few months of the year offer fantastic fishing, foliage that serves up an incredible backdrop, and, in Wisconsin, the bulk of our hunting seasons.

From September through November, I spend nearly all of my free time outside. Between chasing river run salmon, targeting smallmouth bass that are strapping on the feedbag prior to the arrival of winter, finding “the X” for that next waterfowl hunt, and ensuring I have a few hours to sit in the deer stand on occasion, it seems that there just isn’t enough time in the day come autumn.

But it is September 1 that is the gateway to all of these wonderful things. That day marks the beginning of the early goose, mourning dove, and, more recently, the early teal hunting seasons in Wisconsin.

I have been in the field, shotgun in-hand, on the first day of September each of the last 11 years. Every one of these trips has brought varying degrees of success. But none of that dampens the excitement that comes with the first hunt of the year.

The key ingredients for this excitement are a combination of reflection and anticipation. Remembering the past while looking to the future with an eye on all the possibilities that await can stir up powerful emotions. Even the act of preparing for Opening Day gets my mind racing.

Sure, the potential of filling my freezer with game and the allure of successful hunts is exciting. But hunting is about so much more than that.

In late August, I begin to get my hunting gear in order. I purchase my duck stamp, dust off my decoys, organize my shotgun shells, and make sure my blind bag is properly stocked. Every part of the process brings its own little trip down memory lane. From hunts with those who are no longer with us to remembrances of legendary outings in brutal weather, these memories quickly transition into a glance into the future and all of the potential that is waiting to be tapped.

On August 31, I go to bed with the special feeling of knowing that I have the ability to go hunting every single day for the next 90 days or so. Each of those trips has the power to turn into something special.

The dawn of fall means the chance to find adventure in places both new and old. It brings about the chance to create new memories that will be cherished and shared for years to come.

Opening Day ushers in more opportunities to catch up with old friends and keep meaningful connections alive. It means crisp days in the field that transition into cleaning birds on tailgates which leads to campfire-lit socials with plenty of cold beer and an even steadier supply of laughs.

Perhaps most importantly, Opening Day is a chance for those of us who invest time in the outdoors to reap what we’ve sown. It’s an opportunity to realize the fruits of our labor.

All of the hours spent brushing-in blinds, scouting spots, improving our accuracy, practicing our calling, learning our craft: it’s all for this. When daylight breaks on the first day of the season, the dividends of those efforts begin to pay out.

Those who spend time and invest money in protecting habit and promoting conservation will see that first flock of birds crest the horizon and get to enjoy the realization that those efforts played a part in making that moment a reality.

There’s a feeling that comes with all of this. And I’ve learned it’s impossible to find anywhere else.

Opening Day is a chance to reflect while also a looking ahead — a reminder of all that has been and all that could be.

And that’s the magic of Opening Day.

Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast – Episode 13: A game warden’s perspective

It’s Episode 13 of the Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast!

Warden Kaitlin Kernosky of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources joins the show to give us her perspective on the Wisconsin outdoors.

This conversation covers a wide range of topics including: Kaitlin’s outdoor background, the day-to-day life of a game warden, what it takes to work in conservation law enforcement, trapping, and much more.

You can listen to this episode by using the player below or by finding it wherever you get your podcasts.

Like what you hear? Don’t forget to hit the subscribe button on your podcast platform of choice, so you never miss another episode.

To find contact information for your local Wisconsin DNR game warden, click here.

Why you should buy a federal duck stamp (even if you don’t hunt)

For those of us who are avid waterfowl hunters, purchasing a federal duck stamp is part of our yearly routine. It’s required by law, after all.

While it’s true that hunters make up the vast majority of those who purchase this stamp, the benefits from the revenue generated reach far beyond the hunting community. That’s why, if you love the outdoors, you should strongly consider purchasing a federal duck stamp, even if you don’t hunt.

The fact is: there is a cost that comes with keeping the wild parts of our country intact. Purchasing a federal migratory bird stamp (or “duck stamp”) is one of the easiest ways to do your part.

Stamps cost $25 and can be purchased online in most states through the Department of Natural Resources or at most local post offices.

Over 98 percent of every dollar spent on a federal duck stamp goes directly to preserving wildlife habitat. This money is allocated by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. You would be hard-pressed to find an instance where the dollars of a goodwill investment work harder. In fact, the more than $900 million generated by these stamps has helped protect and restore over 6 million acres across all 50 states that birds, fish, and other wildlife call home. Approximately one-third of animals that utilize these lands are species that are listed as threatened or endangered.

This habitat produces wildlife and clean water that is enjoyed well beyond these properties. It can also help minimize the impacts of flooding and storm surges.

A classic example of duck stamp dollars at work is Wisconsin’s Horicon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge. This 33,000-acre property is one of the largest freshwater marshes in the United States and nearly 99 percent of the land was acquired with funds stemming from purchases of federal duck stamps.

If hunting isn’t your thing, buying a duck stamp can still offer some great experiences. For instance, a current federal duck stamp can be used to gain admission into any national wildlife refuge that charges an admission fee.

For those who consider themselves philatelists, these stamps have become collector’s items. Each year dozens of artists submit their work to be considered for the stamp, with only one being featured on the new edition. Year-over-year, no two duck stamps are alike.

If you want to make an investment in the outdoors, a federal duck stamp is a great place to start.

For more information on how you can help support wildlife, check out Episode 10 of The Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast below or listen wherever you get your podcasts.

Robotic Swimming Lure review

There’s a saying that some lures are made to catch fishermen, not fish.

While there is certainly some truth to that statement, not all flashy baits are inherently money traps.

But I must admit, when I first saw the Robotic Swimming Lure, my excitement probably kept me from thinking as clearly as I should have.

My brother-in-law posted a video of the lure on my Facebook wall. The battery-powered bait was shaped and colored like a shad. A small propellor fixed to the nose moved the bait about in a swimming motion. I was immediately taken by the lifelike action.

I had never seen anything like it. So, naturally, I quickly bought one. At a hair under $26 it is, to this day, the most expensive lure I have ever purchased. But I couldn’t wait for it to arrive at my doorstep.

This lure is offered in a variety of sizes and patterns. I chose the 5.12-inch common shad because it had the closest resemblance to the live minnows I use.

Once I had the lure in my possession, I didn’t waste any time taking it for a spin. I brought it to a couple of spots that I knew for certain were home to a host of hungry bass and northern pike.

I decided the best course of action was to fix the lure to one of the included steel leaders and place a bobber above it.

Here is what I learned:

The Perks

I’ve already mentioned this, but it’s worth calling out again: the action on this lure is awesome. It swims around in an incredibly realistic and sporadic motion. When it comes to authentic presentation, this bait gets high marks.

One of the benefits of the realism is that, in theory, this lure could take the place of live minnows. This saves both money and hassle. A live minnow will catch you one fish, if you’re lucky. This lure could and should produce many fish without the need for replacement. Plus, you don’t have to deal with keeping your minnows alive.

The charge on the battery lasts a respectable amount of time in normal water conditions, though cold water shortens the lifespan of the powerpack. The lure is easily charged with the included wall adapter and cord.

Some critics have mentioned the risk of polluting your favorite waters with electronics if the bait would break. While I abhor littering as much as anyone, I must say that if I had a fish hammer my lure so hard that it broke apart, I wouldn’t waste any time going online and buying two more. I’ve caught thousands of fish in my life and I have never encountered one that was so enthusiastic about a lure that it destroyed it in the process of striking.

The Drawbacks

Cost is the most obvious drawback here. This type of price tag should come with noticeable results. While even the best baits have slow days, there shouldn’t be many of those when dropping nearly $30 on a single lure. Generally speaking, this one requires a bit too much patience for my liking.

One of the other issues I encountered was the weight of the bait. All those electronics packed in the body mean you’ll need a sizable bobber in order to know when you have a bite.

While I am a big fan of the motion the lure provides, sometimes it’s a bit too enthusiastic for my liking. With its aggressive darting about, it won’t take long for your bobber to be a few yards from where you left it. Keeping the presentation realistic often requires a fair deal of slack in your line. If you’re fishing in a location with substantial current, you’ll need even more. This can delay the hookset, which can lead to missing fish or, worse, letting the fish become hooked deeper than it would have been otherwise.

The Ruling

Overall, this bait is fun and will catch fish on occasion. I like it. I want to love it, but I can’t. The fact is: I have lures that cost a fraction of what this one does that produce much better results on a more frequent basis.

If you’re looking to try something different and you have a few bucks to spend, give this bait a shot. But if you’re looking for a game-changer, this isn’t it.

Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast – Episode 12: Inside the mind of a professional angler (w/Josh Blosser)

It’s Episode 12 of the Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast! 

Professional angler Josh Blosser competes in Head2Head Fishing’s Professional Walleye Series and was the winner of PWS Event 3 on Mille Lacs Lake. He joins the show to give us an inside look at the life of a pro tournament angler.

This candid conversation highlights what it takes to fish professionally, gives a glimpse of Josh’s fishing mindset, and provides you with tips that will help you catch more fish. 

Listen to the episode below or wherever you get your podcasts. Like what you hear? Be sure to subscribe on your podcast platform of choice. 

Be sure to follow Josh on Instagram and Twitter.

If you enjoyed this show, you may also want to listed to Episode 7: Head2Head fishing with Matt Tratz and Andy Cleveland.

How you can help support Nathan Woelfel Outdoors

Since I first launched Nathan Woelfel Outdoors late last year, I’ve been humbled by how many people have reached out asking how they can help support the site.

Personally, with my journalism background, I view it as my job to share compelling stories, helpful tips, and delicious recipes for all of you to enjoy. Hopefully, by doing this, I can help those of you who spend time with my articles and podcasts view the outdoors in a different way. I’ve always felt that if I need to ask my readers to read, I’m doing something wrong.

However, the support questions keep coming and I’m very grateful for that. So, if you take enjoyment from the content here at Nathan Woelfel Outdoors, here are a few things you can do to support the site (and most of them won’t cost you a dime).

Tell your friends!

Word of mouth goes a long way. If you enjoy what’s going on here, don’t be afraid to tell other people about the site.

“Like” or follow NWO on social media.

You can find me on Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube.

If you see a post you enjoy, like or comment on the corresponding social media post. If you think your friends or family could benefit from something, share it. All of these actions expand the reach of the page and this content.

Visit the website.

Fact is: Most social platforms pick and choose who gets to see which posts. The overwhelming odds are that most of my followers do not see every post. I try to post at least one new article per week to the website. The only way to be sure you don’t miss out is to go directly to every once in a while.

Subscribe to the Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast.

Get inside tips from a host of outdoor professionals and explore the more philosophical sides of hunting and fishing.

By subscribing on the platform of your choice, you’ll be notified every time a new episode drops and the latest shows will be downloaded straight to your mobile device.

Buy NWO gear.

Occasionally, I place an order for branded hats and I put out a call for orders on Facebook. I also have Nathan Woelfel Outdoors vinyl decals available for purchase by messaging the Facebook page or by emailing me at I also plan to explore other apparel options in the future. Proceeds from all of these items go toward covering expenses such as website licensing and podcast support platforms.

I am incredibly grateful for the level of support I have received from all of you. Frankly, if no one was reading, watching, or listening to the content I put out, there wouldn’t be much of a point to any of this. Thankfully, that’s not the case.

I hope those of you who want to assist in growing the site find these actions as a good place to start. I look forward to continuing to grow Nathan Woelfel Outdoors in the months and years to come.

Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast – Episode 11: Cooking your wild game (w/Scott Leysath)

It’s Episode 11 of the Nathan Woelfel Outdoors Podcast!

Scott Leysath is the host of The Sporting Chef, The Fishmonger, and Dead Meat on Sportsman Channel and Outdoor Channel. He is one of the foremost authorities on wild game cooking and he’s here discuss ways you can make the most out of the animals you harvest. 

He even provides a couple exclusive scoops about the future of his television endeavors.

To keep up on Scott’s latest adventures, visit

Listen to the episode below or find it wherever you get your podcasts.

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